To better prepare for the season, physical training should include aerobic training, strength training, anaerobic training, speed training, jumping training, agility training, flexibility training, etc.
Training should follow the general principles of low intensity to high intensity to low intensity (active rest in preparation for the upcoming season), from basic fitness to special fitness to special training instead of physical training.
I. Aerobic training
Aerobic training is a basic training of basketball physical training, which can effectively improve athletes’ endurance level and promote athletes’ fatigue recovery. This training should also follow the transition principle from basic training to special training, that is, from large amount of training and low intensity to high intensity and low amount of exercise.
For example, the methods adopted include LSD running (long time slow tempo running 70%VO2max), Fatlett running (between 70%VO2max and anaerobic threshold training), rhythm training (anaerobic threshold intensity), repetitive training (higher than VO2max), combined with special combined aerobic training, etc.
II. Strength training
Strength training can improve athletes’ functional level, improve muscle balance, improve muscle contraction rate, improve athletic performance and prevent injury.
It is divided into five stages: muscle thickening training, basic strength construction, maximum strength construction, strength maintenance and explosive development, and active rest.
The muscle-thickening phase is important because it prepares players for the next phase in two ways.
On the one hand, thickening of muscle tissue increases the likelihood of muscle strength and endurance. On the other hand, the anaerobic capacity of the players is also enhanced, which also enables the athletes to adapt to the next stage of intense training more quickly. Basic strength training is the ascending phase of strength.
Maximum strength training is characterized by high intensity and light exercise. By reducing the number of times and emphasizing the goal of training, the athletes can feel less tired and strengthen their physical strength. The purpose of retention is to allow the strength gained during the recovery period to be maintained throughout the season.
The active rest period is to make full preparation for the upcoming season and avoid difficult and intense practice to prevent the occurrence of injuries and avoid affecting the performance of technical level.
Standard of hyperrecovery: hyperrecovery is a process in which energy substances such as ATP, CP, muscle glycogen and protein are overcompensated and stored, while the “disappearance of muscle soreness” is only a process in which lactic acid is converted into partial glycogen.
It can be seen that “disappearance of muscle soreness” does not represent excessive recovery and therefore cannot be regarded as a criterion of full recovery. Intuitively speaking, after excess recovery, due to the excess compensation of energy materials, the muscles of the training site swell and harden, and the muscle circumference increases. Therefore, the training effect of greater load is the best at this time. Otherwise, the stock of energy – supplying substances in the muscles dwindles and the time is lost.
The two foundations of excess recovery are adequate nutrition and adequate sleep. After the muscle is overloaded with work, the supplement of carbohydrate and protein and other nutrients is the material basis of excess recovery. Sufficient sleep can effectively restore energy. More importantly, most of the synthesis and regeneration of energy materials are basically carried out during sleep. So can never despise nutrition and morpheus these two important links, otherwise will gain more than the loss, get half the result with twice the effort.
III. Anaerobic training
Basketball is a kind of high intensity competitive sport with no oxygen supply. Studies have shown that in an intense competition, the anaerobic system accounts for 80-85%, while the aerobic system only accounts for 10-15%.
For example, continuous jump rebound, sudden start and stop to change to run, full-court press defense, man-to-man defense are anaerobic metabolism.
Anaerobic training on the training ground began with a 400-meter medium-speed run and ended with a short sprint, turning back and changing direction.
For example, start 400 meters ×3 medium speed – 400 meters ×4 fast – 200 meters ×6 fast – 200 meters ×12 fast – 100 meters ×8 fast – 80 meters ×6 sprint – 60 meters ×12 sprint – 40×12 sprint – return (full-court return, star return, half-court – full-court return, free throw line – middle line – another free throw line – end line return, etc.). In addition, the whole anaerobic training can be interspersed with medium and long distance jumping training.
IV. Speed training
Speed training is a great asset in basketball, because speed involves far more than rushing forward. It involves the ability to change direction, slide and retreat quickly while moving quickly and accurately on the court. Speed is especially important at the critical moment of transition between offense and defense.
Running form correction, small run, back pedal, step jump, uphill and downhill running, resistance assisted running, sprint running, sprint – slide – backward – curve – change direction combination running, etc.
V. Jumping training
Jumping ability is a very important sport ability in basketball project. Especially slam – dunk, rebound, block, jump – shot athletes need to have very good jumping ability. Including jump, jump, full – strength jump, single – leg jump and other forms of practice.
Jumping ability not only requires athletes to have strong lower limb muscle strength, core muscle strength and shoulder belt muscle strength is equally important.
The following points should be paid attention to in jumping training :(1) develop general strength first, strength is the foundation, and sufficient strength foundation can reduce the injury risk of jumping training; (2) Always remember warm-up, stretching and relaxation exercises; (3) The jumping training should be arranged in the front of the training schedule.
Because jumping training focuses on neuromuscular coordination, body fatigue will affect the training effect; (4) To maintain the appropriate intensity of jumping training, pay attention to the training purpose and technical essentials (such as repeated training, the trainee should jump to the highest point, start to fall and before landing the next jump to do a good job of psychological and posture preparation); (5) from easy to difficult training; (6) Adjust training frequency, group number and training quantity appropriately. 1-2 times a week, 15-30 minutes each time, 2-4 minutes interval between groups, 48-72 hours of class recovery, the total control at 80-120 times.
VI. Sensitivity training
Alertness refers to a person’s ability to move quickly, efficiently, and explosively while maintaining balance. The talent of a basketball player is mainly reflected in the ability to judge and react to specific offensive and defensive situations. A player’s ability to use certain basketball skills depends on how quickly and timely his body moves.
Therefore, agility training plays an important role in basketball physical training.
Agility involves speed, strength, balance and reflexes, all of which are essential. For sensitivity training, special equipment can be used for training, such as software, rack, marker plate, reaction change ball, etc. From closed training form, to open training form change, can also carry out combination training.
The initial goal of every stretching training program is to expand the range of movement in a particular part of the body. In a series of stretches, players will feel the benefits of good flexibility in two ways.
(1) Improvement of competitive state
Stretching exercises can help players improve their energy and speed, and shorten muscle recovery time and reduce muscle tone. Stretching during a warm-up prepares players mentally and physically for practice and competition.
(2) Reduction of sports injuries
Players who stretch properly can reduce muscle strains, tendon sprains or other injuries from muscle fatigue, as well as general muscle soreness and cramps. Stretching exercises follow the anatomy of muscles, and pay attention to breathing (slow and rhythmic) while training.
Stretching is divided into: Static stretching (feel pull gently, such as pain, should immediately stop), dynamic stretching (in the static force after, through special joints greatly stimulated the activity of the nervous system, make muscle joints prepared to warm up for the following intense campaign), passive stretch (generally on the training after, on the one hand, relieve muscle fatigue, On the other hand, it can effectively improve the range of motion of athletes’ joints, which is generally carried out by physical fitness coaches. Passive pulling can cause reflex contraction of muscles, so it is not necessary to do strenuous stretching), proprioceptive pulling (PNF) — advanced form — contract-keep-relaxation and contract-motion-relaxation. The sequence starts at the center, i.e. the core, hip and thigh muscles, to the upper extremities.