A key point in explosive power training is that the movement pattern of explosive power training must be the same or similar to the specific movement of athletes. In team sports, it should also be based on the ability required by members of different positions. Many training methods need to be more realistic. This section will illustrate the specific application of explosive power training with more examples.
In some sports, athletes must repeatedly use their explosive power. Examples include sprints in track and field, short swimming sprints, wrestling, and the positions of certain players in team sports, such as defensive backs in American football and pitchers in baseball.
Sprinters’ training is often misunderstood. It takes about 10 to 12 seconds to cover 100 meters. They need to be able to perform strong lower-body movements and sustain them throughout the course, not just the first few steps. While explosive sprinting is required in all team sports (American football, basketball, baseball, ice hockey, rugby, soccer and Australian rules football), it’s not just a skill that sprinters need to develop.
In a 100-meter race, each foot makes approximately 24 to 27 contact with the ground, and for each contact, the ground pushes back at least twice the athlete’s body weight.
A sport in which the athlete must perform strenuous movements immediately after a pause of several seconds.
For example, American football, rugby, soccer and Australian rules football.
The same is true of boxing, wrestling, martial arts and racquet sports, where athletes must perform explosive moves over and over again. To sustain such athletic performance, they need the ability to produce explosive force with a high degree of repetition, performing explosive actions 20-30 times in a row (and even up to 60 times).
The formula for Power Endurance training is: HV × HI.
In addition to the different training methods, it also depends on the movements in the movement. In order to improve the output of step frequency, speed or power in the explosive training process, it also depends on the movements in the movement.
Are the explosive endurance of a football player who repeatedly sprints throughout a game the same as that of a sprinter who maintains a high power output during a 50-step run?
Physiologically, soccer players repeatedly perform non-lactate burst sprints, but often don’t have enough time to replenish the ATP-CP system in their muscles, thus entering a state known as “short-term lactate power.”
A sprinter, on the other hand, uses an anaerobic, non-lactate burst (initial 3-8 seconds) for the first run and then begins to increase the rate of “long-term lactate power” to the finish line.
For this reason, we think that both soccer players and sprinters need explosive endurance, but the two types of explosive endurance are very different physiologically or methoologically.
Explosive endurance is the key to win or lose in many competition events, and the maximum muscle strength is also the key factor affecting explosive endurance. The following will introduce training methods and skills to improve explosive endurance.
Explosive endurance training is basically based on 30-50% of the maximum muscle strength of the load, rhythmic explosive movements.
The athlete must perform 12 to 30 repetitions without pauses and with the fastest movement (explosive movement).
Training needs to be done incrementally. For sports that require short-term explosive endurance (mostly team sports), the training method of multiple sets and low repetition (5-6 times) is adopted; For sports that require long-term explosive endurance, start with a low number of repetitions (10-12 times) and gradually increase to the number of special sports events, such as 15 times for 100-meter sprinters and 30 times for 200-meter athletes, which is set according to the number of steps in the race.
As early as the transition period, fast muscle fibers have been trained to start quickly and provide a powerful burst of power. In this type of training, in order to recruit as many fast muscle fibers as possible and increase the frequency of nerve conduction stimulation, the athlete should also strive to produce the fastest frequency of movement.
The purpose of explosive endurance training, on the other hand, is to train fast muscle fibers to combat fatigue and improve lactic acid tolerance through repeated movements.
The purpose of explosive endurance training is to improve speed endurance, special explosive moving power and typical related sports ability. Training needs to gradually increase the number of repetitions and groups in order to achieve the training objectives.
In this process, athletes need to overcome fatigue with maximum willpower and achieve optimal concentration before each training session.
It is suggested that the training period of this kind of training can be maintained for 6 weeks, but depending on the situation, it can sometimes be shortened to 4 weeks, which is also the minimum period. If the training time is further shortened, the adaptation effect of training cannot be obtained physically, and the amplitude of enhancing explosive endurance will be greatly reduced.
Because each movement requires a large number of repetitions, the fewer the movements the better (2-4 sets, rarely 5 sets). Each iteration in each group requires explosive and rapid action. The rest time between groups is about 3-8 minutes, mainly to allow the central nervous system to get enough recovery.
During this type of training, athletes experience high levels of lactic acid buildup. This is why the repetition times of explosive fast movements should be improved as much as possible. The main reason is to enable athletes to continue to perform high-quality explosive movements under the condition of high lactic acid accumulation.
If there is no such training, the athletes in the competition is not successful performance of such ability, this training method can also reduce the fatigue of the central nervous system, even if the phenomenon of muscle fatigue, the central nervous system can still maintain a high frequency of stimulation and discharge.
The burst of speed ability of the signatory shall be a continuous action, must strictly abide by such a concept, or the wrong way of training, will let the explosive force and explosive endurance training to adapt to the effects of improving the quality of muscles, rather than the explosive force, external performance into muscle hypertrophy, rather than the effect of explosive endurance.
Athletes usually need weeks of preparation before a formal training session to complete 20-30 reps quickly and in an uninterrupted manner. If the number of repetitions cannot be completed with explosive fast movements during the training period, the group training should be ended immediately, because such training results can no longer improve the explosive power. The elements of explosive endurance training are listed below.
II. Landing and reaction explosive force
In many sports, the ability to land, while not the only important skill, plays a role in influencing performance, as do many other skills, such as jumping in figure skating, the ability to change direction quickly in tennis, and the ability to move quickly in team sports.
Therefore, in the actual sports scene, athletes need to have the explosive power of landing and restarting at the same time, so as to change the direction of movement faster and improve the overall sports performance.
The height of the jump affects the explosive performance of landing control and impact absorption. For example, the height of each jump during squat training is about 80-100 cm.
Each time a skater lands, the ankle bears a load of 6 to 8 times his or her body weight. For the same jump in figure skating, a skater needs to generate enough explosive force to land with 5 to 8 times his or her body weight. In order to be able to control the powerful impact of the moment they hit the ground, athletes must train their muscles to withstand the impact of the force of gravity when they hit the ground.
Landing involves a period of centrifugal contraction, and if you don’t train your muscle fibers properly to carry the weight of landing, you can cause too much tension in elastic tissues such as tendons, increasing the chance of injury.
To avoid such negative situations, athletes must undergo centrifugal contractions and plyometric training.
Schmidtbleicher believed that the moment when the athletes fell and landed after jumping went through the inhibition effect stage, during which the athletes would not be able to carry out any actions. Therefore, the longer the inhibition effect existed, the more pause time the athletes needed in the process of landing and starting again.
The inhibition effect can be reduced by training for landing jumps, so a trained athlete will be better able to resist falling gravity than an untrained athlete. He believes that this mechanism of suppression is a protective effect, especially for novice athletes, to protect themselves from injury.
In order to strengthen the ability to hit the ground and start again, athletes should perform both centrifugal and centripetal contractions. Centrifugal strength and enhancement training, mainly in the form of landing and squat jumps, mimics the movement skills of landing.
Landing or squat jumps (also known as reactive jumps) are performed from higher platforms (boxes, benches, chairs) in which the athlete lands while maintaining a bent position (including a slight bend in the knees) to absorb the impact.
Players can also land on the bouncy ball, keeping their heels in the air as they fall, landing only on their toes and stabilizing their weight.
However, this method is a training method with high intensity and high technical requirements in plyometrics, because such action will cause excessive load strength for the extensor muscles of the legs of athletes, so without a certain degree of training, this type of training may easily cause injuries to athletes.
Down from the platform, the process of athletes in a “ready”, namely keep body before landing with knees slightly bent, this way can increase muscle tension and elasticity, when landing this tension and stored in the muscle elasticity, and provide power, in the next action that athletes can more effective enforcement of the next action.
Generally after landing, could move and then the next leap or change of direction, and landing stored energy that can immediately start the effect of stretch reflexes, rapid recruitment of a large number of muscle fibers, which is the reaction of the general strength training is unable to do, such a process to make the athletes can perform another immediately after landing explosive for quick action.
The process of action reflex (including the reflex action of muscle contraction) can be changed by training, and the athletes’ jumping ability can be effectively improved through appropriate periodic training.
III.Throwing explosive power
For a baseball pitcher, a football quarterback or a track and field thrower, much of the explosive power of throwing comes from the contraction of fast muscle fibers. When the diameter of single fast muscle fiber is larger, the contraction speed is faster. The more fast muscle fibers involved in contraction at the same time, the greater the explosive force against load.
Many throwers, and fencers and boxers alike, must undergo explosive training to generate more movement or speed with their equipment, so that the shot or javelin can be thrown farther and the sword or punch faster.
These athletes must contend with the inertial motion of the equipment or equipment in their hands, that is, the acceleration from zero at the start of the movement, and try to accelerate as much as possible during the movement, especially at the end of the release phase in order to achieve maximum speed.
To do this, the athlete must generate much more force than the resistance of the equipment or equipment in his hand. The greater the force generated, the greater the difference between the resistance and the equipment or equipment in his hand, the higher the acceleration achieved.
As a result, athletes who need explosive throwing must properly plan their strength training and explosive training sessions.
The special explosive force training of throwing events mainly focuses on the degree of applying maximum muscle force, and adopts isotonic and elastic shock training methods. For isometric training, each (3-8) repetition must be uninterrupted, and the highest speed of movement must be maintained.
In fact, this kind of explosive rapid contraction movement, if not in the continuous periodic movement operation, enrolling a large number of fast muscle fiber to participate in the training effect of movement speed, only in the first movement of the effect. Therefore, athletes should concentrate as much as possible before the start to complete a group of movements, and the weight-bearing method can also be used with barbell plus elastic belt or chain, so as to increase the weight of the load.
IV.The explosive power of take-off
In many sports, athletes only need to improve the explosive jumping ability; Can enhance athletic performance, such as athletics jumping, ski jumping, volleyball, basketball, football, gymnastics, figure skating and diving.
In general, the action of taking off is followed by a short distance and fast running. In the period before taking off, the muscles are subjected to pre-tension and stored elastic energy. At the same time of taking off, the stored energy is also released as the force of acceleration, thus generating strong jumping ability.
The depth of the squat at the moment the joint flexes, depending on the muscle fibers, also forms the explosive force of the leg. The lower the squat, the more power the leg extensor must exert.
But the squat is necessary to take offpower, because it causes the muscles to stretch, leading to a long period of acceleration before the jump.
The depth of the squat is also directly proportional to the explosive force of the leg, which generally depends on the muscle structure and ability of the athlete’s lower limbs.
If the Angle of the squat is too large, the muscle extension speed will be slower (also affect the contraction speed is slower), and finally reduce the explosive force during the jump, resulting in the take-off height is not ideal.