A key point in explosive power training is that the movement pattern of explosive power training must be the same or similar to the specific movement of athletes. In team sports, it should also be based on the ability required by members of different positions. Many training methods need to be more realistic. This section will illustrate the specific application of explosive power training with more examples.
I. Start explosive power
Geobacillus is a necessary ability in sports and is often the key to winning and losing races, with the speed at which movements start and races are won and won.
Sports associated with this ability include boxing, karate, fencing, sprinting starts, and certain positions in team sports that require sudden acceleration from a stationary position. In order to perform well in these projects, the physiological characteristics are to recruit as many fast muscle fibers as possible to achieve the ability of explosive fast start.
A sprinter’s start, in which the muscles are stretched (knees and hips are bent), can produce a greater burst than when the muscles are relaxed or shortened.
In this position, the elastic parts of the muscles store pre-stored elastic kinetic energy which is released instantly when the gun is fired.
National class athletes have explosive power in their starting moves, generating 132 kilograms (290 pounds) of propulsive force on their front feet and 102 kilograms (225 pounds) on their rear feet. The higher the start power, the more explosive start action can be performed, with a faster start speed.
In boxing and martial arts, a quick, explosive start can promote a powerful attack and break down the opponent’s defense.
The elastic and reactive structure of the neuromuscular system is the key to a fast and powerful start. During the transition period of periodic training, special explosive force training can effectively improve the ability of these structures, thereby improving the stretch reflex ability of muscles and the explosive force generated by fast muscle fibers.
The key to making the starting action more fast and powerful can be improved by equitension training, elastic shock training, special Maxex training and reinforcement method. This can be done by repeating several movements in a group, or separately.
On the other hand, the athlete can do one set at a time, so that the athlete has time to concentrate, focus exclusively on the set, and do his best to complete the set with explosive and rapid movements. In these ways, athletes can recruit as many fast muscle fibers as possible during training, thus generating more explosive power.
II.Accelerate explosive force
In sprinting, swimming, cycling, rowing, and most team sports, athletes must improve their acceleration ability to achieve higher speeds in order to achieve better athletic performance.
In order to have good acceleration ability, explosive force is a necessary condition, when the athlete’s explosive force is not enough, it can not resist the strong ground reaction force, or water resistance, so that they can get forward acceleration. For this reason, explosive power is an essential element in sports that require the ability to accelerate.
In sprints, the force applied to the ground is reacted with two or three times as much force. In rowing, each stroke must withstand 40 to 60 kilograms (88 to 132 pounds) of weight to maintain high acceleration.
And in all sports that require acceleration power, the corresponding movement techniques must be quickly repeated. In this case, greater force can be exerted against the ground, or the maximum force output is far greater than the water resistance, the faster the acceleration can be achieved.
In order to improve the ability of acceleration, increasing the maximum muscle force is a necessary condition. The maximum muscle strength increased during the maximum muscle strength training period will be maintained through special explosive strength training and converted into the explosive strength of athletes.
More specifically, isotonic contraction, elastic shock, explosive force impedance and enhancement methods can help athletes to increase the frequency of a series of neuromuscular impulses, as much as possible activation and recruitment of fast muscle fibers to participate in action. This activation process allows athletes to produce higher levels of accelerated explosive power.
These training methods are to use a small number of repetitions (1-6 repetitions), each repetitions are explosive fast movements at a high speed frequency, in addition to a group of only one repeated movement.
In the first case, the main goal of training is the explosive power of repetitive movements; In the second case, the main goal of training is to produce maximum explosive force at one time. This non-cyclical approach also makes less use of the elastic force stored by muscle pretension.
Both should be included in your training, because the explosive acceleration required by an athlete in competition requires instant, powerful movements that are repeated at a very fast rate. Through the periodization of muscle strength training, the training of improving and accelerating explosive power should be timely in the main competition stage to achieve the results of training, so as to achieve better performance in the main competition.
Even with 20 repetitions, you can improve your endurance performance. But such training is inadequate for many swimmers in middle and long distance swimming, kayaking, canoeing, boxing, wrestling, cross-country skiing, speed skating and triathlons.
III.Decelerating explosive force
In many team and racquet sports, the ability to slow down is just as important as the ability to accelerate. In team sports, players accelerate their running speed to achieve goals, such as passing an opponent or being able to move and catch a teammate’s pass.
Athletes in sports such as basketball, soccer, hockey and ice hockey need the ability to decelerate quickly to change direction of their run or to continue their jumps. Generally speaking, having a better deceleration capability can gain a greater tactical benefit.
The ability to slow down comes from the biomechanics of the movement and the power of the legs, which in fact must support at least twice their own weight for fast deceleration.
The whole process of deceleration is completed by the centrifugal contraction of the legs. In the case of moving forward, the feet that originally produce propulsion force behind the center of gravity of the body move to the center of gravity of the body before the forward force is given to the ground. At this time, the action will make the muscles produce centrifugal contraction, and reduce the forward force and speed. So the centrifugal contractions of muscles, which produce muscle elasticity that resists and softens impact, are key to an athlete’s ability to slow down quickly.
To cushion the impact, explosive force is absolutely essential, and the knee and hip joints also need to flex to effectively cushion the impact, a movement similar to landing techniques.
To train the muscles to perform rapid deceleration, athletes must use a variety of training methods, such as centrifugal contractions and plyometric exercises.
For the training method of centrifugal contraction, athletes can effectively improve the ability of centrifugal contraction through the training method of maximum muscle strength, and the load weight during training can be medium to super large load.
For the reinforcement method, students with several years of training experience can start with a low impact training method, gradually increase the impact through the principle of gradual, athletes can use pull-down and squat jump training.